The theory posits that each group member enters the discussion aware of a set of items of information or arguments favoring both sides of the issue, but lean toward that side that boasts the greater amount of information. This research was pioneered by James A. F. Stoner (1961), who first found the tendency in groups who were considering risk-taking behaviors; the phenomenon was thus initially labeled "risky shift." In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty. The result of jury deliberation is to produce an increase in extremism, in the form of higher awards. The result is a biased discussion in which the group has no opportunity to consider all the facts, because the members are not bringing them up. Group discussion shifts the weight of evidence as each group member expresses their arguments, shedding light onto a number of different positions and ideas. A. F. (1961). [6], In a study conducted by Sia et al. [23], The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members. [2], Group polarization is an important phenomenon in social psychology and is observable in many social contexts. Cited in Marquis, D. G. (1962). ____The chances are 7 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. a. The researchers again asked people about the strength of their beliefs about the deterrence effect of the death penalty, and, this time, also asked them about the effect that the research had had on their attitudes. A study conducted by Taylor & MacDonald (2002) featured a realistic setting of a computer-mediated discussion, but group polarization did not occur at the level expected. Group polarization Group identification r=.40, p<.0001 H1 supported Group identification Individuating information a F= 17.04, p<.0001 H2a supported b Group polarization Individuating information F= 7.30, p<.01 H2b supported c Perceived argument quality Group identification r=.32, p<.0001 H3 supported Group polarization Group polarization has been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps to account partially for violent behavior and conflict. Log in. Individuals completed the questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others. A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. In other words, the extremist will have no impact without interaction. Industrial Management Review, 3, 8-23. [31] Similar to the social media platforms, video streaming platforms like YouTube are forming groups unconsciously through intelligent algorithm seeking for extreme contents. He is assured of a lifetime job with a modest, though adequate, salary and liberal pension benefits upon retirement. 2020; (ISSN: 1091 ... Neurons were polarization sensitive in large parts of the virtual sky that in some cells extended to the horizon in all directions. [35], Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). [12] This apparent tendency is of interest not only to psychologists, but also to sociologists,[13] and philosophers.[14]. [40], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Dynamic Debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter", "Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization", "Risky and cautious shifts in group decisions: the influence of widely held values", "Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization", "Deliberative Trouble? Also, Moscovici et al. [8] When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them. [36], Group polarization is similarly influential in legal contexts. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. This phenomenon was originally coined risky shift but was found to apply to more than risk, … A study by Myers in 2005 reported that initial differences among American college students become more accentuated over time. Individual responsibility and group decisions involving risk. He observed a phenomenon known as “risky shift”, which appeared to show that when placed in a group setting, individuals were prepared to take riskier decisions than those they might have taken as … Moreover, computer-mediated discussions often fail to result in a group consensus, or lead to less satisfaction with the consensus that was reached, compared to groups operating in a natural environment. Assuming most or all group members lean in the same direction, during discussion, items of unshared information supporting that direction are expressed, which provides members previously unaware of them more reason to lean in that direction. A split into opposing factions that fail to reach an agreement b. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367-383. These results are noteworthy because they indicate that even trained, professional decision-makers are subject to the influences of group polarization.[37]. Very simply, group polarization happens because you take the most extreme part of a bunch of people, add that all up, and get something more extreme. This suggests that a general phenomenon of choice-shifts exists apart from only risk-related decisions. In particular, their punitive-damage awards tend to be far higher than the preferred award of the median member, before deliberation. Risky and cautious shifts are both a part of a more generalized idea known as group-induced attitude polarization. "Found in many settings, it involves like-minded people going to extremes. Group polarization is a phenomenon studied in the social sciences in which the decisions and opinions of individuals become more extreme when they are in group settings. [21] This finding demonstrates how one opinion in the group will not sway the group; it is the combination of all the individual opinions that will make an impact. [17] When people had read both the research that supported their views and the research that did not, they tended to hold their original attitudes more strongly than before they received that information. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. According to the social comparison interpretation, group polarization occurs as a result of individuals' desire to gain acceptance and be perceived in a favorable way by their group. [25] Studies regarding the theory have demonstrated that normative influence is more likely with judgmental issues, a group goal of harmony, person-oriented group members, and public responses. According to the idea of group polarization, if an individual holds an opinion about a topic, that opinion will likely be enhanced after a discussion on the topic with a group. Value polarization in 1992 does not, however, predict polarized affective reactions to the major party presidential candidates in 1996. [16] Whichever position they held initially, people tended to hold that position more strongly after reading research that supported it. Researchers have identified an increase in affective polarization among the United States electorate, and report that hostility and discrimination towards the opposing political party has increased dramatically over time. Almost as soon as the phenomenon of group polarization was discovered, a number of theories were offered to help explain and account for it. Social psychologists highlight that group polarization is a direct result of conformity. Since the late 1960s, psychologists have carried out a number of studies on various aspects of attitude polarization. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making. The theory holds that people first compare their own ideas with those held by the rest of the group; they observe and evaluate what the group values and prefers. It is always a good idea to start an investigation with a very simple test case. ____The chances are 1 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. For example: Kroner and Phillips (1977) compared murder rates for the year before and the year after adoption of capital punishment in 14 states. Since human beings are social creatures the allure to be accepted and belonged to a group is very strong which can result in group polarization. Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it. [18] These results should be understood in the context of several problems in the implementation of the study, including the fact the researchers changed the scaling of the outcome of the variable, so measuring attitude change was impossible, and measured polarization using a subjective assessment of attitude change and not a direct measure of how much change had occurred. The most popular of these theories is self-categorization theory. The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups… While attending a convention, Mr. A is offered a job with a small, newly founded company which has a highly uncertain future. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … These findings also show the importance of previous group shifts. It would read as following, "Please check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. A to take the new job.". Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Before studying the nanowire polarizer, we will check our ana… [4] Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization. Researchers theorize that this is at least partially explained by group polarization, as group members tend to reinforce one another's proclivities and opinions. point out that it is reasonable for people to be less critical of research that supports their current position, but it seems less rational for people to significantly increase the strength of their attitudes when they read supporting evidence. A defining aspect of polarization, though not its only facet, is a bimodal distribution around conflicting points of view or philosophies. Normative Influence states that people will alter their opinions in a group setting in order to fit in or be looked upon more favorably by their peers. found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. [39] While polarization can occur in any type of conflict, it has its most damaging effects in large-scale inter-group, public policy, and international conflicts. In contrast to social comparison theory and persuasive argumentation theory, the self-categorization model maintains that inter-group categorization processes are the cause of group polarization [29]. Overall, the results suggest that not only may group polarization not be as prevalent as previous studies suggest, but group theories, in general, may not be simply transferable when seen in a computer-related discussion. 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